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Thoughts on Chapter 1

Genres are what author’s and the rest of the world use to sort and categorize pieces of work. Pieces of work can be art to music to books. Chapter one teaches us to focus mainly on the difference in characteristics of the elements of different genres. The different elements of genres include style, design, and sources. Style refers to the type of techniques in regards to how much and what type of details a writer uses. Of course the design of the genre are the visual aspects of how the writer made the piece. Sources include who, what, where, and how the writer got the facts for the piece. The chapter also discussed mode, media, and audience. The mode is the experience of the readers have while reading the composition. Mode is broken down into three parts: writer, visual, and audio. The media is the delivery mechanism of the mechanism of the composition. Targeted readers are the audience of the composition.

Generally speaking, before college teachers stress the three elements of style, design, and sources alongside the audience. However, no classes has gone into depths of the importance of genres. Usually when I read I do not focus on each elements. Therefore, what I took from reading was while reading focus on the mode, media, and elements of genre.

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Project 3 Proposal

My project 3 subject will come from the argument I used in project 2 which states that men are less likely to attend therapy because of gender roles. My project breaks this argument into 3 different genres, those being print: a poster, digital factor: a video, and a network system: website or twitter.

The poster that will be included into my project will be kind of like a clinical review. It basically serve to raise awareness on the impact that gender roles have on men attending therapy. It will be a poster around places that most psychologists go so they will be forced to give attention to that fact that there should be more research done on this topic.

The digital factor that is incorporated will be a video recording of a mock therapy session. The video will show how therapy sessions work and a run done of the process. This is so the men can actually see that therapy is not as bad as it seems and gives them a better understanding of therapy. This will make men more comfortable to step into a session rather than going into a session blind and nervous.

The network system I chose will be either a website and a twitter page. The website will be ran by multiple psychologists so they can add advice or answer anonymous questions for those men who are still nervous or fearful of therapy. Included will be a question and answer for the day or a topic of the day.

The genres of my project 3 will strive to make the gender roles in psychology better rather than stagnant for worse.

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Chapter 10: Assembling A Multi-Genre Project

A multi-genre project is essentially just multiple genres included in one paper surrounding one topic, but it must include a minimum of three genres. A multi-genre project may include informative: annotated timeline or map, persuasive: presentation, photo essay, slideshow, or an author’s or artist’s statement, or narrative: story or interview. You do not have to do and either or for an example you may have a collection of narrative pieces.

With a regular genre paper you form an argument based on a research question and expand on that idea. With multi-genre the use of physical genres may help expand the paper to help a more interesting and visual project. It helps to form a better connection with the audience of your paper. This is because some people focus differently from other. For an example some people focus better with pictures, others with videos, and some may need to read it themselves.

Another way is to use your rhetorical appeals in your favor. You can base each genre on different appeals. The book gives this example as using one for emphasize on logos, one on ethos, and another on pathos or only using one appeal. Or even using media and modes as well. There are no boundaries when creating a multi-genre paper.

When finished go through a checklist to clarify that everything needed is within the paper. You should have an introduction to your paper (context included is necessary), sequence your genre pieces to verify that it flows, title your project, create an Author’s or Artist’s Statement,  and package the project correctly with creativity.

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Chapter 9: Revising & Remixing Your Work

Generally people believe that not everybody has the right to critique and revise work because of “experience.” On the contrary little experience is needed to revise, therefore, anyone can revise a piece of work. Chapter 9 explores this idea and explains more ways that one can revise and remix their work.

You should always begin revising with a draft. Just write all you want to say in the paper in the draft . The structure can be important but for a draft not necessarily, you write the draft to form a purpose from your topic. You can always go back in revising and fix your structure.

With self-critiques and reviews you should begin by verifying the purpose of your paper. Once you have your purpose you should have an idea where the paper its and where you would like the paper to be after the revision. This helps to form an Author’s or Artist’s Statement. If you have gotten that far than you will feel as though there is nothing else to fix. You will no longer see the obvious errors in front of you or things that could be included to make the paper better. This is the purpose of a peer review.  You may view the story as one thing but those who are doing the peer review will be able to tell you if the got the same tone, purpose, thesis, etc. as you didd reading and writing your own paper.

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Men’s Emotional Restriction

Most psychological therapies have been tested on different genders and age limits to help distinguish these different types of therapies. The paper will focus on how these different types of therapies specifically effects men versus how it effects women. This is because women attend therapy more frequently than men because of fear provoked by their social environment cognitive-behavior therapy.

Counseling therapy is a confidential talking therapy which allows people to talk to a therapist about their problems. Relationship therapy is essentially talking therapy but between family, couples, and sometimes co-workers. Men’s reactions are not limited by their emotions. In therapy men do not want to open up about their emotions especially to their significant others. It is harder for men to speak about their emotions to their significant other making it even harder for them to open up to a stranger.

Here is a guide to a better understanding on what takes place in counselling psychology…

https://youtu.be/bQvQ2fliItA

https://youtu.be/xrHgOoNBiWk

For a better understanding on how men react to and in relationship therapy…

https://youtu.be/KVx4ZbF-oGM

Psychotherapy is a one-on-one or group session to help problems and unhealthy habits. What differentiates psychotherapy from counseling and relationship therapy is psychotherapy discusses methods to cope or change the problem or habit. Men usually do not openly go to anyone about their problems and when they do it is often their friends. As for personal problems within their life style, they definitely do not like talking about their bad habits. Men have an idea on how to fix a problem and are at times open minded and then are not. When they are not open minded they usually are showing stubbornness and not willing to change or solve the problem they are seeking a solution for.

For a better understanding on psychotherapy, being that it is very similar to relationship and counselling therapy…

https://youtu.be/KVx4ZbF-oGM

https://youtu.be/0Tt1IDjmito

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy. It is a talking therapy that attempts to changes the way one may think or behave about your problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy gets to the sole purpose of thoughts and the minds role in people’s behaviors. For the most part each therapy treats the same type of mental conditions or problem. The type of therapy is chosen based off of how your therapist chooses to treat such issue(s). For both men and women there is no difference in when it comes to their level of openness. Both sexes do not like the idea of changing the way they think especially since both sexes look at situations through a right and wrong prospective.

There is a list of specific disease and people who benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapy the most…

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Counselling/Pages/Talking-therapies.aspx

All different types of therapy were created as a form of help and coping with one’s problems not as solutions. Therapists usually are brought into the picture to allow a patient to look at their problem from different angles rather than just seeing it in one point of view. Although it is true that women are stubborn and do not want to see things in other points of views neither do men. It is also stereotypical that women are not never cooperate and for men too agree with their significant other to keep them happy. These stereotypes connect the idea that men do not go to therapy to the “OCEAN model” and both their evolution from social environment. The “OCEAN model” is a model created to minimize the amount of different type of personalities to 5 more important and frequent personality types which was created by Costa and McCae. However, Costa and McCae ‘s “OCEAN model” coincides with Goldberg’s “Big Five.” The difference is Goldberg’s version is based primarily on factor analyses of adjectives and are not hierarchical. OCEAN stands for openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Out of the Big Five men score higher in extraversion and with openness there is no sex difference. With that being said mentally the men and women’s willingness to seek therapeutic help has nothing to do with mental will power. Both the “Big Five” and “OCEAN model” argue the idea that men act under such circumstances because of their need and desire for status. The desire restricts men’s emotions during both therapy, relations, and etc. Their need for status comes off as a harsh masculinity because to men the weak do not give in. Women view seeking help not as giving in but as a way to help them seek that higher status in society.

Men’s utilization of therapy has increased since the creation of therapy, however, men still underuse counseling services. Which leads society to question what can actually be done to change men’s view of therapy. Psychologists have also been questioning why men have these views and have come up with a theory. According to Good, et al. “traditional male gender role and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors are related,” as well as “the psychological and sociological reasons for women’s use of counseling services” (295). The biggest reasoning behind gender roles part in men not going to counseling that is being questioned is men do not often talk about their feelings. Therefore, men are “restrictive emotionally” (Good, 295). Restrictive emotionally is a man’s way of limiting the amount of emotions they share not necessarily that they have a limited amount of emotions.

Being as though relationship therapy is not that different from counseling therapy one can guess that men do not want to be emotionally involved in relationship therapy either. It is true in life as shown in movies when women suggest going to counseling when their marriage is on the verge of divorce. Men are usually hesitant of the idea of marriage counseling and they either agree or disagree with their partner.

Psychotherapists are therapists who specialize in helping those with long term issues and mental health issues. Some are able to help physically and medically, which is where clinical psychologists come in. Others help through active listening and trying to help those people find solutions for the problems or find out what might be causing the problem, which are regular psychotherapists. Much research has been done, such as Maracek & Johnson in 1980, leading to the idea that men are less affected in therapy than women. Within psychotherapy the biggest crutch that always surfaces as a problem is confidentiality. These patients have to trust them with personal and embarrassing behavior which installs fear of disclosure in men. The fear can be invoked in men or the men are unaware of their feelings when they participate in psychotherapy, studied by Carlson in 1987. Another con that discourages men from going to psychotherapy is a theory discovered by Sheridan in 1982. The theory states that during these therapy sessions men have high odds in receiving little to no sympathy and acceptance in therapy. These negative assumptions shadow the idea of men’s need for control and power. Putting all the cons together into a process basically states that men will not be able to control the situation once their feelings are put out on the table. Thus foreshadowing the mean becoming fearful in therapy. Men will become fearful of not being accepting for their feelings in therapy.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is mostly used for anxiety and depression. It is also proven to be most effective compared to the other psychotherapies that treat both anxiety and depression. To most the mind has the most effect on people’s behavior and they believe there is a correlation between that theory and anxiety and depression. Another mental illness that cognitive-behavioral therapy helps cure is (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) PTSD, technically includes anxiety and depression. Women usually suffer from PTSD after they have a child and men usually suffer from PTSD when they get out of the military. Commonly both genders have issues admitting they need help when they began suffering from PTSD. Many receive the symptoms and remain in a state of denial about having the symptoms and needing treatment. However, like many other therapies once they began receiving treatment for the issues the difference in genders come into play. Like the other therapies women once in cognitive-behavioral therapy they see it as affective. Although, they are still at risk of having PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Women usually suffer from these three mental issues again after treatment is over. However, for men this is the one therapy that men usually end up going to and actually find affective. Long after therapy men might have a relapse but there is usually a slim chance of a relapse actually happening.

Men are raised from years past evolution to be self-reliant. In today’s society men still see it as weak to seek help. With multiple psychologists’ efforts being done to change the way therapies are presented maybe men will begin to utilize the help being offered. As for now men are still not taking advantage of the resources being offered to them when they are in need. At least men are found to seek treatment for PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapy and it is proven to be affective. Cognitive-based therapy in all has shown to be most effective in men than any other therapy so psychologists should change their other therapies to be similar in structure to the cognitive-behavioral therapy structure.

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You’re Being Serious

The digital artifact which I have chosen is a meme of a young boy named Gavin which can be classified under the category of humorous meme. This meme is universal in the sense that it is relatable to all through its humor and common expressions to all of society. Similarly, people in society in fact have the same emotions, reactions, and expressions as those presented in the meme. You just look at the meme a form of connection of people through humor.
Compositions that are separated into categories to help others differentiate each composition are called genres. Genres are a way of grouping artifacts together which have common similarities. Such as the subject in which the object is formed around. The compositions range from art work to actual written articles. People classify using genres in the same context that scientists use taxonomies. It is basically used to distinguish physical or digital pieces of works. Therefore, I classify the image under the humorous genre. In grade school students are typically taught genres are basically either fiction or non-fiction. Although when sorting certain works with others we look at the same situations in each work. Some examples of this are the style or the theme in the compositions.
The digital artifact I have chosen for project one is a little boy that has become the face of most present day social media. The picture of the boy reached the surface of the Internet and rose in fame because everyone saw how stressed and serious a little boy could be. Within the picture there is a boy with one of his hands holding up his head and the other hand resting on his leg. The little boy’s facial features shows him gazing off as if he is confused and trying to figure out what happened, alongside the expression that he is fed up. I chose this picture because the memos attached to the boy, no matter what the circumstances he always makes me laugh. As well as the memes usually describe how I feel and react to people in my head since I can’t say it out loud. This also describes how most people feel toward others. The picture groups people into two categories. A person is either the little boy or a person is the one always given a judgmental look. Although the boy usually seems serious, annoyed, and sometimes even confused. His correlation to my life makes me laugh. Therefore, I would categorize the picture as a genre better known to present day society as meme. This digital artifact stands out above all because it is a universal expression through the genre of memes. With the image being seen as universal the picture allows people to connect and share similar feelings. The picture is to inform people of their reactions as well as why people react this way. Usually people assume people have a bad attitude because they make the face. Which is not always the case. People can also make the face in a state of confusion. However, both confusion and fed up can be seen as funny.
To classify something in a genre one must define the genre. A meme is a digital image, video, or a piece of text taken of noun and is either participating in a verbal or non-verbal action. Although, memes actually have genres within its own genre. Which are the images, videos. Or piece of texts. An image can be categorized as a meme with or without words. However, the level of humor is usually determined by the caption alongside the different forms. The greatest characteristics about memes are that people can just take the forms and edit them which allows the forms to float around social media in thousands and thousands of different variations of digital forms. The meme I have chosen is without words because there are multiple cations given to the picture. Therefore, memes connect as a genre through the grouping based off similarity in styles, purpose, and form. All memes purposes are to be relatable, structured the same through the digital form, and words. This gives us the ability to group them into a genre of memes. Thus, the meme connects as a genre.
Memes may also be classified within their genres based on the pieces subject matter. The genre within meme that I would categorize the image under is a humorous meme. To classify something in a humorous meme the structure of the work must fit that as humorous genres structures. These structures include those that show a sign of dilemma, which usually either makes people laugh or cry. In the situation presented in the picture is distress or dilemma but in this case because of the boy’s face it is seen as humorous. Another technique used to structure humorous genres is the form of speech. Uniquely when a piece of work is based on humor the tone given is monotone or plain. It is the sort of tone people use to be witty or to say a pun. Every meme associated with this boy has this tone given off. The words are spoken as they would be in a normal voice but it is humorous because there are relatable jokes associated with them meme. Another characteristic of humorous genres is the reactions given off of the piece of work. Most people have laughed, retweeted, reposted, etc. the pictures of the little boy. There has been pages created based on the little boy where people just post memes the make from the pictures. These are positive reaction which are confirmed by not only the emoji’s but also the feed on social media as you read the comments associated with the pictures.
The digital artifacts are aimed to relate to the people that say or do something that would have someone make that face and react that similarly to the way the boy reacts. Therefore, I am aiming toward the same audience. Which to me should not be difficult because as stated before the expression is universal. Usually with the genre of memes they aim to have people understand universal jokes rather than inside jokes. People also aim to say offense jokes using the memes during awards or television show premieres; mainly reality shows. Likewise, in a way the digital artifact I have chosen may offend those who the boy’s reaction is toward. This is because the boy usually makes the reaction if someone said or did something stupid. This in a way insults others and makes them feel they are stupid. Most memes use insulting people through memes as a way to humor people. In that same form people use the memes to insult people in way that others would understand universally.
Most of the comments on the little boy’s pictures under his social media accounts on twitter, Tumblr, Instagram, and vine are of people reposting “mood,” “same,” or a crying emoji. These leads to the conclusion that the thesis was correct. Using the meme also connects people through humor since people usually feel the same way about similar subjects. Not only is it a genre of meme but the picture is in fact universal and relatable through the idea of humor.

Works Cited

• Harris, Joseph Prof. “Multimodel Essay.” English 109S: Digital Writing (Spring 2011). Spring 2011. https://sites.duke.edu/english109s_02_s2011/multimodal-essay/. Accessed 11 September 2016.
• Wimmer, Joshua. “Definition and History of the Comedy Genre.” Comedy Genre: Definitions & Characteristics. 2003-2016. http://study.com/academy/lesson/comedy-genre-definition-characteristics.html. Accessed 11 September 2016.
• Bryson, Shane. “The Writing Process: Determining Constraints.” SCRiBBER. 17 November 2014. https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/writing-process-determining-constraints/. Accessed 11 September 2016.
• Collins, Jamisha. “Let’s Talk Comp.” WordPress.com. 09 September 2016.https://jamishacollins.wordpress.com/. Accessed 11 September 2016.
• Oxford Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2016.http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/meme. Accessed 17 September 2016.

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A Man’s Run Away from Therapy

Jamisha Collins

ENC 2135

Professor Robert Cole

11/06/16

Most psychological therapies have been tested on different genders and age limits to help distinguish these different types of therapies. The paper will focus on how these different types of therapies specifically effects men versus how it effects women. This is because women attend therapy more frequently than men because of fear provoked by their social environment cognitive-behavior therapy.

Counseling therapy is a confidential talking therapy which allows people to talk to a therapist about their problems. Relationship therapy is essentially talking therapy but between family, couples, and sometimes co-workers. Men’s reactions are not limited by their emotions. In therapy men do not want to open up about their emotions especially to their significant others. It is harder for men to speak about their emotions to their significant other making it even harder for them to open up to a stranger.

 

Here is a guide to a better understanding on what takes place in counselling psychology…

https://youtu.be/bQvQ2fliItA

 

https://youtu.be/xrHgOoNBiWk

 

For a better understanding on how men react to and in relationship therapy…

https://youtu.be/KVx4ZbF-oGM

 

Psychotherapy is a one-on-one or group session to help problems and unhealthy habits. What differentiates psychotherapy from counseling and relationship therapy is psychotherapy discusses methods to cope or change the problem or habit. Men usually do not openly go to anyone about their problems and when they do it is often their friends. As for personal problems within their life style, they definitely do not like talking about their bad habits. Men have an idea on how to fix a problem and are at times open minded and then are not. When they are not open minded they usually are showing stubbornness and not willing to change or solve the problem they are seeking a solution for.

 

For a better understanding on psychotherapy, being that it is very similar to relationship and counselling therapy…

https://youtu.be/KVx4ZbF-oGM

 

https://youtu.be/0Tt1IDjmito

 

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy. It is a talking therapy that attempts to changes the way one may think or behave about your problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy gets to the sole purpose of thoughts and the minds role in people’s behaviors. For the most part each therapy treats the same type of mental conditions or problem. The type of therapy is chosen based off of how your therapist chooses to treat such issue(s). For both men and women there is no difference in when it comes to their level of openness. Both sexes do not like the idea of changing the way they think especially since both sexes look at situations through a right and wrong prospective.

 

There is a list of specific disease and people who benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapy the most…

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Counselling/Pages/Talking-therapies.aspx

 

All different types of therapy were created as a form of help and coping with one’s problems not as solutions. Therapists usually are brought into the picture to allow a patient to look at their problem from different angles rather than just seeing it in one point of view. Although it is true that women are stubborn and do not want to see things in other points of views neither do men. It is also stereotypical that women are not never cooperate and for men too agree with their significant other to keep them happy. These stereotypes connect the idea that men do not go to therapy to the “OCEAN model” and both their evolution from social environment. The “OCEAN model” is a model created to minimize the amount of different type of personalities to 5 more important and frequent personality types which was created by Costa and McCae. However, Costa and McCae ‘s “OCEAN model” coincides with Goldberg’s “Big Five.” The difference is Goldberg’s version is based primarily on factor analyses of adjectives and are not hierarchical. OCEAN stands for openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Out of the Big Five men score higher in extraversion and with openness there is no sex difference. With that being said mentally the men and women’s willingness to seek therapeutic help has nothing to do with mental will power. Both the “Big Five” and “OCEAN model” argue the idea that men act under such circumstances because of their need and desire for status. The desire restricts men’s emotions during both therapy, relations, and etc. Their need for status comes off as a harsh masculinity because to men the weak do not give in. Women view seeking help not as giving in but as a way to help them seek that higher status in society.

 

Men’s utilization of therapy has increased since the creation of therapy, however, men still underuse counseling services. Which leads society to question what can actually be done to change men’s view of therapy. Psychologists have also been questioning why men have these views and have come up with a theory. According to Good, et al. “traditional male gender role and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors are related,” as well as “the psychological and sociological reasons for women’s use of counseling services” (295). The biggest reasoning behind gender roles part in men not going to counseling that is being questioned is men do not often talk about their feelings. Therefore, men are “restrictive emotionally” (Good, 295). Restrictive emotionally is a man’s way of limiting the amount of emotions they share not necessarily that they have a limited amount of emotions.

Being as though relationship therapy is not that different from counseling therapy one can guess that men do not want to be emotionally involved in relationship therapy either. It is true in life as shown in movies when women suggest going to counseling when their marriage is on the verge of divorce. Men are usually hesitant of the idea of marriage counseling and they either agree or disagree with their partner.

Psychotherapists are therapists who specialize in helping those with long term issues and mental health issues. Some are able to help physically and medically, which is where clinical psychologists come in. Others help through active listening and trying to help those people find solutions for the problems or find out what might be causing the problem, which are regular psychotherapists. Much research has been done, such as Maracek & Johnson in 1980, leading to the idea that men are less affected in therapy than women. Within psychotherapy the biggest crutch that always surfaces as a problem is confidentiality. These patients have to trust them with personal and embarrassing behavior which installs fear of disclosure in men. The fear can be invoked in men or the men are unaware of their feelings when they participate in psychotherapy, studied by Carlson in 1987. Another con that discourages men from going to psychotherapy is a theory discovered by Sheridan in 1982. The theory states that during these therapy sessions men have high odds in receiving little to no sympathy and acceptance in therapy. These negative assumptions shadow the idea of men’s need for control and power. Putting all the cons together into a process basically states that men will not be able to control the situation once their feelings are put out on the table. Thus foreshadowing the mean becoming fearful in therapy. Men will become fearful of not being accepting for their feelings in therapy.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is mostly used for anxiety and depression. It is also proven to be most effective compared to the other psychotherapies that treat both anxiety and depression. To most the mind has the most effect on people’s behavior and they believe there is a correlation between that theory and anxiety and depression. Another mental illness that cognitive-behavioral therapy helps cure is (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) PTSD, technically includes anxiety and depression. Women usually suffer from PTSD after they have a child and men usually suffer from PTSD when they get out of the military. Commonly both genders have issues admitting they need help when they began suffering from PTSD. Many receive the symptoms and remain in a state of denial about having the symptoms and needing treatment. However, like many other therapies once they began receiving treatment for the issues the difference in genders come into play. Like the other therapies women once in cognitive-behavioral therapy they see it as affective. Although, they are still at risk of having PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Women usually suffer from these three mental issues again after treatment is over. However, for men this is the one therapy that men usually end up going to and actually find affective. Long after therapy men might have a relapse but there is usually a slim chance of a relapse actually happening.

Men are raised from years past evolution to be self-reliant. In today’s society men still see it as weak to seek help. With multiple psychologists’ efforts being done to change the way therapies are presented maybe men will begin to utilize the help being offered. As for now men are still not taking advantage of the resources being offered to them when they are in need. At least men are found to seek treatment for PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapy and it is proven to be affective. Cognitive-based therapy in all has shown to be most effective in men than any other therapy so psychologists should change their other therapies to be similar in structure to the cognitive-behavioral therapy structure.

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Chapter 8: Composing in Genres

To begin with chapter 8 breaks down the purposes for rough drafts. It is basically your research question finally written down in sometime of form. This will allow the writer to see whether the research question will form an actual research paper or not. By this it just means does the question have enough argumentative data or data that agrees with the question being research to meet the word count. Thus, continues on to discuss how to write the rough draft using helpful hints, editing sources, and putting it all together for draft 2 and the final paper.

It is recommended to start the paper to match quantity not quality. Therefore, when beginning a paper do not worry as much for the introduction and thesis as much as you should the amount of content. Have a set list on sources and evaluate those sources to meet quantity. The second draft is when caring for structure such as preparing the proper thesis and annotating sources. Once finishing the checklist for the first and second draft you begin the long process of finalizing the paper. To begin one should set all of their feedback given from both drafts. Start of rereading the second draft. When doing so focus on the structure, design, themes, settings, medium, tone, and etc. Then begin annotating sources. To begin this process one must set all their sources out and begin writing how each has it’s own purpose and how it will serve it’s purpose as evidence. After note the author’s purpose for the source, main points, and audiences. Then analyze the source through understanding techniques the author used and why. Rounding everything up all together after making final cuts just be sure you chose the proper genre for your paper. To do so take the research question and analyze the style, mode, medium, audience, rhetorical appeal, and etc. Using these should help conclude the genre the paper falls under based on how similar all qualities are and what genre they all fall under.

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The Truth Behind Genders’ Roles in Psychological Therapy

Jamisha Collins

Professor Robert Cole

ENC2135

10/16/16

Most psychological therapies have been tested on different genders and age limits to help distinguish these different types of therapies. The paper will focus on how these different type of therapies specifically effects men versus how it effects women. This is because women’s odds are higher to be more emotionally effected as a result from therapy than men’s.
The four main therapies are counseling therapy, relationship therapy, psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavior therapy. Counseling therapy is a confidential talking therapy which allows people to talk to a therapist about their problems. Relationship therapy is essentially talking therapy but between family, couples, and sometimes co-workers. Psychotherapy is a one-on-one or group session to help problems and unhealthy habits. What differentiates psychotherapy from counseling and relationship therapy is psychotherapy discusses methods to cope or change the problem or habit. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy. It is a talking therapy that attempts to changes the way one may think or behave about your problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy gets to the sole purpose of thoughts and the minds role in people’s behaviors. For the most part each therapy treats the same type of mental conditions or problem. The type of therapy is chosen based off of how your therapist chooses to treat such issue(s).
Since the beginning of time the amount of men that utilize therapy has increased, however, men still underuse counseling services. Which leads society to question what can actually be done to change men’s view of therapy. Psychologists have also been questioning why men have these views and have come up with a theory. According to Good, et al. “traditional male gender role and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors are related,” as well as “the psychological and sociological reasons for women’s use of counseling services” (295). The biggest reasoning behind gender roles part in men not going to counseling that is being questioned is men do not often talk about their feelings. Therefore, men are “restrictive emotionally” (Good, 295). Restrictive emotionally is a man’s way of limiting the amount of emotions they share not necessarily that they have a limited amount of emotions.
Being as though relationship therapy is not that different from counseling therapy one can guess that men do not want to be emotionally involved in relationship therapy either. It is true in life as shown in movies when women suggest going to counseling when their marriage is on the verge of divorce. Men are usually hesitant of the idea of marriage counseling and they either agree or disagree with their partner.
Psychotherapists are therapists who specialize in helping those with long term issues and mental health issues. Some are able to help physically and medically, which is where clinical psychologists come in. Others help through active listening and trying to help those people find solutions for the problems or find out what might be causing the problem, which are regular psychotherapists. Much research has been done, such as Maracek & Johnson in 1980, leading to the idea that men are less affected in therapy than women. Within psychotherapy the biggest crutch that always surfaces as a problem is confidentiality. These patients have to trust them with personal and embarrassing behavior which installs fear of disclosure in men. The fear can be invoked in men or the men are unaware of their feelings when they participate in psychotherapy, studied by Carlson in 1987. Another con that discourages men from going to psychotherapy is a theory discovered by Sheridan in 1982. The theory states that during these therapy sessions men have high odds in receiving little to no sympathy and acceptance in therapy. These negative assumptions shadow the idea of men’s need for control and power. Putting all the cons together into a process basically states that men will not be able to control the situation once their feelings are put out on the table. Thus foreshadowing the mean becoming fearful in therapy. Men will become fearful of not being accepting for their feelings in therapy.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is mostly used for anxiety and depression. It is also proven to be most effective compared to the other psychotherapies that treat both anxiety and depression. To most the mind has the most effect on people’s behavior and they believe there is a correlation between that theory and anxiety and depression. Another mental illness that cognitive-behavioral therapy helps cure is (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) PTSD, technically includes anxiety and depression. Women usually suffer from PTSD after they have a child and men usually suffer from PTSD when they get out of the military. Commonly both genders have issues admitting they need help when they began suffering from PTSD. Many receive the symptoms and remain in a state of denial about having the symptoms and needing treatment. However, like many other therapies once they began receiving treatment for the issues the difference in genders come into play. Like the other therapies women once in cognitive-behavioral therapy they see it as affective. Although, they are still at risk of having PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Women usually suffer from these three mental issues again after treatment is over. However, for men this is the one therapy that men usually end up going to and actually find affective. Long after therapy men might have a relapse but there is usually a slim chance of a relapse actually happening.
Men are raised from years past evolution to be self-reliant. In today’s society men still see it as weak to seek help. With multiple psychologists’ efforts being done to change the way therapies are presented maybe men will begin to utilize the help being offered. As for now men are still not taking advantage of the resources being offered to them when they are in need. At least men are found to seek treatment for PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapy and it is proven to be affective. Cognitive-based therapy in all has shown to be most effective in men than any other therapy so psychologists should change their other therapies to be similar in structure to the cognitive-behavioral therapy structure.

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RR: Annoying Ways Ppl Source

Annoyances in writing are usually noticed by pickiest readers such as teacher or editors. However, it is still always good to know guidelines or at least the basic common errors that annoying readers who do pay attention. Most writers either do not know of the common American writing system guidelines or the know of it and choose to ignore it.

The first annoyance is common with first year composition students. The error comes into play when theyou drop a quote in unexpectedly. It is always best to ease a reader into the quote. Another common mistake is beginning to analyze a quote but never finishing it. It is easy to accidently do this because most writers do. Some people may choose to open an essay with a quote, which can make or break an essay. Just note when making this choice to not choose an extra long quote because it drags the introduction on more than it should. It also may come off as you just needed something to open it, needed to reach a word count, or out of place. The biggest crutch that is used when writing a research paper is quotations. However, adding to much quotations comes off as you are trying to show off everything you know. But doing so may come off as adding too much information without really analyzing the quote and getting to the point. Alongside a quotation that is inserted into a sentence always be sure the sentence and quote match grammatically. With that being said, do not switch from first, to second, to third person and make sure the verb and subject agree. Works cited sometimes do not match the in text citation. Just make sure these both match. Then clarify which sentence came from where. All and all the annoying ways to use sources usually varies from person to person.

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Chapter 7: Integrating & Documenting Sources

Chapter 7 follows chapter 6’s discussion on how to find sources and discussing how to incorporate your sources once they are found. Sources can be incorporated into the story based on whether it argues with the essays purpose or whether it argues against the essays purpose. The sources may also be included through basic citations. Chapter 7 explains how to do in-text citation through quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing as well as how to do works cited in MLA and APA format.

In-text citations must include the author’s last name and the page number which the quote was found on. Quoting a piece of work in an essay just incorporating the piece of work in it’s exact words and then include the author’s last name. To paraphrase just means to rephrase an author’s idea in the chosen source in your own words. To cite an author’s work when you paraphrase simply write the author’s name in the essay. An example given was “According to Dar,” which was written in Emily Khan’s paper. When summarizing one should simply just summarize the main point that is presented in the paper’s introduction. In the end when citing the works of the essay in MLA you should present the author’s last name, the title of the article, the title of where the afrticle is posted or found, the publisher or sponsor, the date, the medium (newspaper, website, etc.), access date. The difference when writing an APA works cited is the URL is included.